Masanari Kondo,Osamu Mizuno,Eun-Hye Choi
Software effort estimation is a critical task for successful software development, which is necessary for appropriately managing software task assignment and schedule and consequently producing high-quality software. Function point (FP) metrics are commonly used for software effort estimation. To build a good effort estimation model, independent explanatory variables corresponding to FP metrics are required to avoid a multicollinearity problem. For this reason, previous studies have tackled analyzing correlation relationships between FP metrics. However, previous results on the relationships have some inconsistencies. To obtain evidence for such inconsistent results and achieve more effective effort estimation, we propose a novel analysis, which investigates causal-effect relationships between FP metrics and effort. We use an advanced linear non-Gaussian acyclic model called BayesLiNGAM for our causal-effect analysis, and compare the correlation relationships with the causal-effect relationships between FP metrics. In this paper, we report several new findings including the most effective FP metric for effort estimation investigated by our analysis using two datasets.
Masanari Kondo,Osamu Mizuno,Eun-Hye Choi
Masanari Kondo,Osamu Mizuno,Eun-Hye Choi
758
International Journal of Mathematical, Engineering and Management Sciences (IJMEMS)
0
ISSN: 2455-7749
2
90–112
0
Causal-Effect Analysis using Bayesian LiNGAM Comparing with Correlation Analysis in Function Point Metrics and Effort
http://www.ijmems.in/assets/8-vol.-3%2C-no.-2%2C-90–112%2C-2018.pdf
3
2018
Satoru Uehara,Osamu Mizuno,Tohru Kikuno
In this paper we discuss the estimation of effort needed to update
program codes according to given design specification changes. In
the Object-Oriented incremental development(OOID), the requirement
changes occur frequently and regularly. When a requirement change
occurs, a design specification is changed accordingly.
Then a program code is updated for given design specification change.
In order to construct the development plan dynamically,
a simple and fast estimation method of efforts forcode updating
is strongly required by both developers and managers. However,
existing estimation methods cannot be applied to the OOID.
We therefore try to propose a straightforward approach to estimate
effort for code updating, which reflects the specific properties of
the OOID. We list up following factors of the effort estimation for
OOID: (1) updating activities consist of creation, deletion, and
modification, (2) the target to be updated has four kinds of
types(void type, basic type, library type, and custom type), (3) the
degree of information hiding is classified into private, protected
and public, and (4) the degree of inheritance affects updating
efforts.
We then propose a new formula $E(P,\sigma)$ to calculate the efforts
needed to update a program $P$ according to a set of design
specification changes $\sigma$. The formula $E(P,\sigma)$ includes
weighting parameters: $W_{upd}$, $W_{type}$, $W_{inf\mbox{-}h}$ and
$W_{inht}$ according to the characteristics (1), (2), (3) and (4),
respectively. Finally, we conduct experimental evaluations by
applying the formula $E(P,\sigma)$ to actual project data in a
certain company. The evaluation results statistically showed the
validity of the proposed approach to some extent.
Satoru Uehara,Osamu Mizuno,Tohru Kikuno
Satoru Uehara,Osamu Mizuno,Tohru Kikuno
243
0.148 (2002)
IEICE Transactions on Information and Systems
1
1
233-242
0
A new approach to estimate effort to update object-oriented programs in incremental development
http://search.ieice.org/bin/summary.php?id=e85-d_1_233&category=D&year=2002&lang=E&abst=
E85-D
2002
Masanari Kondo,Osamu Mizuno
In the effort estimation studies, we can obtain open datasets from the past research. Those datasets are either within- company or cross-company dataset. On effort estimation, it was long discussed which dataset is appropriate for building accurate model. To find a new viewpoint in this discussion, we introduce the causal-effect relationship estimation technique. We use a simple Bayesian approach that is defined by the data generation model in a Linear Non-Gaussian Acyclic Model( LiNGAM ). This model is applied to the function point and effort metrics in both within-company and cross-company datasets. We assume that if a dataset is appropriate for effort estimation, causal-effect relationships between metrics and effort will be extracted more. The result of case study shows that we can extract more causal- effect relationships from the cross-company dataset than that of from the within-company dataset.
Masanari Kondo,Osamu Mizuno
Masanari Kondo,Osamu Mizuno
Proc. of 27th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE2016), Workshops proceeding
736
10
Ottawa, Canada
47-48
1
Analysis on Causal-Effect Relationship in Effort Metrics Using {Bayesian} {LiNGAM}
10.1109/ISSREW.2016.18
2016
Osamu Mizuno,Eijiro Shigematsu,Yasunari Takagi,Tohru Kikuno
In the practical software development, software quality is generally
evaluated by the number of residual defects. To keep the number of
residual defects within a permissible value, too much effort is
often assigned to software testing.
In this paper, we try to develop a statistical model to determine
the amount of testing effort which is needed to assure the field
quality. The model explicitly includes design, review, and test
(including debug) activities.
Firstly, we construct a linear multiple regression model that can
clarify the relationship among the number of residual defects and
the efforts assigned to design, review, and test activities. We then
confirm the applicability of the model by statistical analysis using
actual project data.
Next, we obtain an equation based on the model to determine the test
effort. As parameters in the equation, the permissible number of
residual defects, the design effort, and the review effort are
included. Then, the equation determines the test effort that is
needed to assure the permissible residual defects. Finally, we
conduct an experimental evaluation using actual project data and
show the usefulness of the equation.
45%, 33/73
Osamu Mizuno,Eijiro Shigematsu,Yasunari Takagi,Tohru Kikuno
Osamu Mizuno,Eijiro Shigematsu,Yasunari Takagi,Tohru Kikuno
Proc. of 13th International Symposium on Software Reliability Engineering (ISSRE2002)
138
11
Annapolis, MD, USA.
139-146
1
On estimating testing effort needed to assure field quality in software development
2002
Satoru Uehara,Osamu Mizuno,Tohru Kikuno
In this paper we discuss estimation of efforts needed to update
programs according to a given requirement change. In the
Object-Oriented prototyping development(shortly the OO prototyping),
the requirement changes occur frequently and regularly. Thus a
simple and fast estimation of efforts is strongly required by both
developers and managers. However, existing estimation methods cannot
be applied to the OO prototyping.
Therefore we will try to propose a straightforward approach to
effort estimation, which reflects the specific properties of the OO
prototyping. First, we analyze the following characteristics of the
OO prototyping: (1) updating activities consist of creation,
deletion and modification, (2) the target to be updated has four
kinds of types(void type, basic type, library type and custom type)
and (3) the degree of information hiding is classified into private,
protected and public.
Then, we present a new formula $E(P,\sigma)$ to calculate the
efforts needed to update a program $P$ according to a set of
requirement changes $\sigma$. The formula $E(P,\sigma)$ includes
weighting parameters: $w_{upd}$, $w_{type}$ and $w_{inf\mbox{-}h}$
according to the characteristics (1), (2) and (3),
respectively. Finally, we conduct experimental evaluations by
applying the formula $E(P,\sigma)$ to actual project data in a
certain company. The evaluation results prove statistically to some
extent the validity of the proposed approach.
47%, 65/137
Satoru Uehara,Osamu Mizuno,Tohru Kikuno
Satoru Uehara,Osamu Mizuno,Tohru Kikuno
Proc. of 6th Asia-Pacific Software Engineering Conference (APSEC'99)
117
12
Takamatsu, Japan.
144-151
1
A straightforward approach to effort estimation for updating programs in object-oriented prototyping development
1999
Masanari Kondo,Osamu Mizuno
ソフトウェアの開発において,工数予測は重要な課題である.工数予測の手法としては,回帰分析などを 用いてソフトウェアメトリクスからモデルを作成する研究が行われている.ここで,サンプル数の不足などから企業 横断的 (Cross-Company) データセットが,モデル作成に用いられることがあるが,このデータセットが工数予測に対 して良いデータセットなのか悪いデータセットなのかを判断することは難しい.本報告では,因果関係推定手法を用 いた新しい工数データセットの評価指標を提案した.オープンデータを用いた実験より,我々の評価指標は正しく工 数データセットの良さを評価できていることを確認した.
近藤 将成,水野 修
Masanari Kondo,Osamu Mizuno
電子情報通信学会技術報告
743
1
京都市
426, SS2016-36
1-6
3
LiNGAMを用いた因果関係同定による工数データセットの分析
Analysis on effort datasets by causal-effect relationship using LiNGAM
116
2017
Eijiro Shigematsu,Osamu Mizuno,Tohru Kikuno,Yasunari Takagi
本研究では,ソフトウェアの最終的な品質をある一定の許容値以内に収めるために必要となるテスト工数の基準値を定める手法を提案する.これまでに,ある企業の開発プロジェクトを対象として,設計工数とレビュー工数の2つの工数の配分比が最終品質に与える影響の分析を行ってきた.しかし,設計工数とテスト工数の配分が最終品質に与える影響については十分に議論してきていない.そこで本報告では最終品質をある許容値以内に収めるために必要なテスト工数を求めることを目指す.提案法では,まず各工程に対する工数配分とフィールド不具合数の関係をモデル化した重回帰式を作成し,テスト工数を得るための式を導出する.そして,その式に対してフィールド不具合数の許容値,設計工数,レビュー工数を定めることで,品質を保証するために最低限必要なテスト工数の基準値を算出する.実際のプロジェクトデータを用いた適用実験の結果,提案法で求めた基準値以上のテスト工数があれば最終品質を保証できることを確認した.
重松英二郎,水野修,菊野亨,高木徳生
Eijiro Shigematsu,Osamu Mizuno,Tohru Kikuno,Yasunari Takagi
電子情報通信学会技術研究報告
259
1
629, SS2001-35
9-15
3
フィールド不具合数を許容値以下に抑えるためのソフトウェアテスト工数の推定モデルの提案
Estimation of Software Testing Effort to Assure Permissible Number of Field Defects
101
2002